Neurología Infantil o Neuropediatría

Dirigido a

Población pediátrica.
Introducción

La Neurología Infantil es una subespecialidad médica de la Pediatría, que se encarga de prevenir, diagnosticar y tratar las patologías y/o trastornos que afectan el sistema nervioso central, el sistema periférico, el sistema autónomo y el sistema neuromuscular, desde el embarazo hasta la adolescencia. Está relacionado con las patologías del cerebro y todos sus componentes, la médula espinal y sus raíces, el nervio periférico y los músculos, ya sean intrínsecas del sistema afectado, adquiridas o genéticas.

Crisis convulsivas y epilepsias, enfermedades del nervio periférico (neuropatías), la unión neuromuscular (miastenia), el músculo (miopatías o distrofias), cefaleas y migrañas, traumas craneales y sus consecuencias, trastornos del desarrollo psicomotor y del lenguaje, trastornos de la atención, de la actividad motora, del comportamiento social, autismo, trastornos del aprendizaje y del movimiento (tics, temblores, distonías, Parkinson juvenil, coreas, etc). 

También, se tratan patologías como: parálisis cerebral e insuficiencia motora de origen cerebral (IMOC), malformaciones cerebrales por embriopatías o fetopatías durante el embarazo, accidentes cerebrovasculares (hemorragias, infartos o embolismos), trastornos genéticos que afectan el sistema nervioso, problemas autoinmunes que afectan el cerebro y/o médula espinal (esclerosis múltiple, etc), infecciones y/o inflamaciones del cerebro (meningitis, encefalitis), tumores cerebrales, cerebelosos y/o medulares.

Lectura e interpretación de EEG y video telemetrías, EMG, neuroconducciones, protenciales evocados visuales, auditivos y/o somato sensoriales, RNM y TAC cerebrales, eco transfontanelar y aplicación de toxina botulínica.

Además, se realiza punción lumbar, punción ventricular, biopsia de músculo y/o nervio, Doppler transcraneal, apoyo en dieta cetogenética para epilepsia, apoyo con grupo de Genética a niños con enfermedades raras o huérfanas, apoyo con el grupo de Neurocirugía a niños con tumores, epilepsia o movimientos anormales, apoyo con el grupo de Nefrología infantil a niños con mielomeningocele. Por otro lado, se apoya al grupo de cardioinfantil y Cirugía cardiovascular a niños con patologías cardiacas congénitas, apoyo a las Unidades Intensivas de Recién Nacidos y Pediátricas, para el manejo de patologías complejas y su seguimiento. 

  • Santiago Sergio Cruz Zamorano.
  • Juan Fernando Gómez Castro.
Especialistas en Neurología Infantil o Neuropediatría

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